Vizcaya is an estate in a North Italian, sixteenth-century style on Biscayne Bay, designed for James Deering as a winter residence. The estate originally consisted of 180 acres, including the main house, formal gardens, extensive lagoon gardens, and a village that serviced the property. The main house was built between 1914 and 1916, while the construction of the complicated gardens and the village continued into the early 1920s. During these latter years labor and materials were difficult to acquire as a result of World War I. Vizcaya is noteworthy for adapting European cultural traditions to Miami's subtropical landscape. The house, for example, combines European marble and Floridian limestone while the Italianate gardens rely on plants capable of thriving in Miami's climate.