The Acropolis of Pergamum is perched atop a high, steep-sided hill at the eastern edge of the modern city. The foundations of the monumental buildings of the ancient city cascade down the hill towards the modern city. Homer and Herodotus studied and wrote in Pergamum, and the library was the second largest in the world, next to Alexandria's, with over 200,000 books. When Egypt refused to export more papyrus to Pergamum, the residents invented parchment (Latin "Pergamem" = "From Pergamum"), using calfskin.
The most prominent building here is the Traianeum, or Temple of Trajan, a huge marble temple that has been partially reconstructed from ruins found on the site. However, the most prominent feature of the Acropolis is the Hellenistic Theater, built into the side of the hill, with a seating capacity of 10,000.